A batch glass reactor is a vessel used for various processes such as batch distillation, crystallization, product mixing, and chemical reactions. Some industries refer to them as bioreactor because of the roles they play.
A batch reactor is a combination of several tanks, a storage tank with an agitator and a cooling system. These vessels vary in sizes depending on the industry. They range from one liter to fifteen thousand liters. The batch reactors are fabricated in steel, glass-lined steel, glass, or alloy.
Different solids and liquids have different densities, thus different materials. Gases are discharged through the top connections, and fluids are released through the bottom.
The Main Compositions of Batch Glass Reactor
The agitator is a central driveshaft with a drive unit, and then impeller blades are installed on the driveshaft. The size and design of the blades depend on the product being processed; hence, heavier products require faster, stronger blades.
Baffles are stationary blades installed to break the flow caused by the rotating agitator. Some baffles can sometimes be installed on the vessel cover or the inside of the agitator walls. This design of having baffles and agitator blades combined is very efficient, but the amount of electricity used is very high. Energies of more than five watts per liter are expected, which burdens the cooling system.
2. Heating And Cooling System
The products from the agitator contain a lot of heat due to the stirring process. The heating and cooling system is supposed to maintain the desired heat temperatures of the products from the agitator. Heat can be added or removed from the products by a cooling pipe.
The cooling/heating pipes are used to heat and cool the batch reactors. Usually, external cooling systems are preferred as they are easier to clean.
The parameters used to define the cooling jackets are uniformity of jacket temperature, response time to modify the jacket temperature, and stability of jacket temperature. Large batch reactors have external cooling jackets, which may lead to severe heat transfer constraints. It is hard to get more than 100 Watts/liter. Hence there are more efficient solutions than batch reactors.
The Specifications of WKIE Lab Glass Reactor
|Reactor Material||High quality borosilicate 3.3 glass|
|Support Frame Material||Stainless steel 304 and coated aluminum|
|Neck No. On Lid||5||6|
|Rotating speed(rpm)||0 ~ 600 (customizable)|
|Power supply||220V or 110V / 50-60HZ|
|Discharge||PTFE (Teflon) bottom discharge valve with no deadspace|
|Pressure Range||Full vacuum to atmosphere|
|Max jacket pressure||0.5 bar|
The Types of Batch Reactors Cooling Jackets
There are several types of batch glass reactor cooling jackets available out there. You need to take into consideration different factors before buying a given cooling jacket. The main aim of having a cooling jacket is to regulate the temperature of a reactor. Cooling jackets consist of the outer layer of the reactor, which has coils used to control the temperature. The cooling fluids are moved through the outer layer in pipes, which help in the control of temperature.
There are some chemical percusses which require control of temperature. The rector cooling jackets play a significant role in keeping the temperature constant. It is a great way to control the temperature in different chemical processes.
Here are the types of batch reactors cooling jacket available:
1. Single external jacket
The single jacket is an outer jacket which surrounds the vessel. It consists of a single coil wound on the vessels to control the temperature. The cooling fluid is passed through the coil to regulate the temperature of the vessel.
In a single external jacket, there is one inlet and outlet of cooling fluid in the unit. The cooling fluid is injected into the coils at high pressure through the nozzles. It is then circulated through the coil, which leads to temperature regulation. The single jacket cooling system has been widely used to achieve different effects in the chemical processes.
2. Half coil jacket
In this case, the pipes are split lengthwise to bring about two circulation paths in a cooling jacket. The system allows cooling and heating fluids to pass trogon the system at high speed and turbulence. The coils are welded to the reactor vessels, after which the cooling and heating fluid is passed in at high pressure. It is an effective way of cooling and heating the vessel.
High pressures can be achieved when circulating the cooling fluids, which contribute to high efficiency in the cooling and heating of the vessel during the reaction. Several factors are taken into consideration before a semi cooling jacket can be applied. For instance, the experts have to check on the type of reaction under control, among other factors, before they can proceed to apply a given cooling system. The jacket is also referred to as a half-pipe coil jacket due to the way the coils are wound around the reactor jacket.
3. Constant flux cooling jacket
It is a unit where heat transfer channels are provided. Each channel is clamped to the vessel through welding. When several heating channels are connected to the reactor vessel, it leads to more efficiency in heat production. The system is highly effective in cooling the vessel.
The jacket’s design leads to maintenance of constant temperature. Some reactions require the use of constant temperature. When several heating mechanisms are used, it becomes easy to maintain a constant temperature in the process. The choice of jackets depends on several factors. It is essential to check on the several factors which affect the reaction before you can decide on the cooling jackets.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Reactors
Reactors are critical elements in the production process, and the material you select plays a significant role in the reaction performances. Batch glass reactors are among the top choices to go for if you are trying to get the best material for your reaction processes. This guide is thus meant to outline the significant advantages and the disadvantages of batch glass reactors to enable you to know if the material is the best choice to go for.
Advantages of batch glass reactor
- Corrosion resistance to both acids and alkaline solutions
The glass reactors provide corrosion resistance to water, vases, and acidic solutions, however, excluding the phosphoric and hydrofluoric acids. This, therefore, makes the material last for many years while still in good condition. Going for the batch glass reactors would be a wise choice as it would save you some replacement costs.
- Ease of cleaning
The glass reactors are easy to clean since the surfaces are smooth. The smooth glass surfaces also provide strong resistance to viscous build-up or any sticky products during the reaction processes. Cleaning is very critical, especially when you dealing with pharmaceutical reactions and would be a great idea choosing the glass reactors for easy cleaning.
As mentioned Herr in, the batch glass reactors are resistant to corrosion hence able to last for longer durations. This thus means that they can easily be maintained and can save you the replacement costs PD acquiring new materials.
The glass reactors have both chemical and thermal properties hence able to withstand a range of operations in the reaction processes. They can handle multiple applications in the reactions processes without even the need to add new equipment.
The glass reactors are highly recommended for visibility effects. You can carry out all the reaction processes efficiently since you can see through every step in the transparent glass reactors.
- Operates at high temperatures and pressure
The batch glass reactors can operate at very high temperatures and pressure hence allowing for high heat transfers during the chemical reactions.
Disadvantages of batch glass reactors
Some metals are easily dissolved in highly aggressive reaction processes hence interfering with the purity of the solutions in the reaction processes. Some metals such as nickel, chromium, and copper may easily dissolve due to high heat conditions or pressure hence contaminating your products.
This thus results in low-quality products, and the products can even be harmful due to the glass elements dissolved into the solutions. Productivity yields may also be affected.
- Smaller connection and mixer assembly
The glass reactors tend to provide mixer assemblies hence restricting you to handling minor chemical reactions at a time.
The batch reactors are quite an excellent option to consider while carrying out your batch reactions. They are durable, offer corrosion resistance, and are very flexible to multiple applications. However, they may not provide pure products and may not be fit for significant quantity reactions due to their small mixer assemblies.
Difference Between Batch Reactor and CSTR
- The batch glass reactor does not reach a stable state, and it is often necessary to control the temperature, volume, and pressure. Several batch reactors have ports for sensors and input and output materials. Thus, batch glass reactors are commonly used in small-scale production and biological reactions, such as fermentation, pulp, and enzyme production.
- The typical batch reactor consists of an induction storage tank and cooling system. The sizes of these containers can vary from less than 1 liter to more than 15,000 liters. They are usually made of steel, stainless steel, glass-coated steel, glass, or exotic alloys. Liquids and solids are sent through gaskets on the top cover of the reactor. Vapors and gases are also discharged through the connections at the top. The fluids are removed from the back.
- The benefits of a batch reactor lie in versatility. A single container can perform a series of different operations without having to break containment. That is especially useful when treating toxic or highly effective compounds.
- In CSTR, one or more liquid reagents are inserted into the tank reactor. The reactors are generally moving with the impeller to ensure the correct mixing of the reagents during the extraction of the reactor fluid. Dividing the volume of the tank by volumetric flow rate through the tank gives space-time, or the time required to process the volume of a single liquid reactor. The reactor is suitable for using chemical kinetics; the expected percentage of the reaction can be calculated.
- CSTRs are frequently used in industrial processing, mainly inhomogeneous liquid phase flow reactions, where induction is required. It can be used alone, in series, or with battery. CSTRs are also used in the pharmaceutical industry as a closed-circuit reactor.
- On the other hand, the CSTR reactor has excellent temperature control that can be easily maintained. Also, the entire reactor is economical and has a large thermal capacity that provides an interior room with easy access.
The Applications of Batch Reactor
There are several applications of batch glass reactor. The reactor is used to carry out processes under controlled environments. You will find the reactor applied in biology, laboratory tests, and chemical processes. Batch reactors come in different sizes and designs which allow different processes to be carried out. It is necessary to research the design of a given batch reactor before you can proceed to invest in one. Factors such as temperature control are made easy through the application of the batch reactor.
In some cases, the reactor can be used to control temperature and pressure. In the case of biology, the construction can be set at optimum for different biological processes.
Here are the applications of batch glass reactor:
1. The Applications of Batch Reactor in Biology
There are several biological applications of batch reactors. The reactors can be used to control biological processes such as fermentation. Fermentation is a process that involves microbes. The batch reactor plays a significant role in the process where experts take small samples of the microbes involved in the fermentation process and subject them to controlled environments.
When the units are subjected to controlled environments, they can be studied to logical conclusions to be made. Microorganisms are used in sewerage treatment plants. The batch reactors are applied to study the effectiveness of different processes involved in the fermentation process.
2. The Applications of Batch Reactor in the Laboratory
There are several applications of batch reactors in laboratory settings. Experts need to control the temperature in a small sample before they can study it. For example, in the pharmaceutical industry, laboratory tests are carried out to know the effectiveness of different chemical compounds in the environment or to people. The samples are collected and studied in a batch where the findings can be used to make specific decisions that affect the way the processes are carried out.
The batch reactors are used to make different types of products in a given condition. The researchers take time to involve the application of the reactors, which leads to making decisions backed with scientific results. Laboratory tests should be carried out under controlled conditions to determine the best process of undertaking specific processes. A batch reactor plays a significant role in studying the condition in the laboratory.
3. The Applications of Batch Reactor in Chemistry
There are several chemical processes which are involved in the manufacture of products. For example, the manufacturer of colorants involves the mixing of different compounds. The process can be controlled under batch glass reactors.
Apart from the manufacture of colorants, the application of the batch reactors has been proved to be highly effective in the manufacture of margarine and other food products. The conditions are set at optimum, after which different ingredients are mixed.
The use of batch reactors makes it possible for the manufacturers to realize the highest standards when they are working with a given set of conditions. It is a process that makes it easy to control conditions under which a given process is undertaken.