The glass reactor can be divided into the continuous stirred tank glass reactor and the batch reactor that has been equipped using the impeller among other devices used for offering efficient mixing.
And also, the continuous stirred tank reactor is an agitated idealized tank reactor that can model variable operations that we needed to achieve a specific output.
Chemistry CSTR, as the reactor with some powerful features, can exhaust and supply the reactant continuously and acts as the standard mixed Flow mechanical reactors.
In a word, the continuous stirred tank glass reactor is easy to use, very robust, and affordable.
Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Design
A continuous stirred tank glass reactor design is simply a batch reactor which comes with an impeller. Apart from the impeller, it can as well have other mixing devices aimed at increasing the efficiency of the mixing liquids. It is also referred to as the agitated reactor. Some processes require continuous mixing so that the desired effects can be realized. The stirred reactors are designed in such a way they make it easy to mix tie ingredients in the reactor. It is a way of improving the efficiency of the chemical reaction. When the compounds are mixed, they tend to increase the rate of reaction, among other factors.
Here are some of the design features of a stirred tank glass reactor:
- Continuous feed system
The stored reactor has a feeding system that ensures continuous feeding of raw materials to be applied. The raw materials are then mixed with speeding up the chemical reaction. The mixing process continues until the products fully react. Impellers and motors can be used to make the mixing process more efficient.
- Exhaust system
The final products are removed from the reactor via an exhaust system. The continuous mixing of the ingredients leads to the fast completion of the chemical processes. The design takes time to have all the ingredients mixing, after which they are removed via the exhaust system.
- Variable mixing speed
The impellers used to bring about the mixing process can be adjusted to achieve different mixing speeds. It is necessary to expose the ingredients to different mixing speeds. The stirred tank glass reactor has several applications. The various applications require different mixing rates. The ability to vary the mixing rates contributes towards making the reaction more effective. Stirred glass tank reactor differs from other units in the market due to the use of the mixing mechanism.
The Specifications of WKIE Lab Glass Reactor
|Reactor Material||High quality borosilicate 3.3 glass|
|Support Frame Material||Stainless steel 304 and coated aluminum|
|Neck No. On Lid||5||6|
|Rotating speed(rpm)||0 ~ 600 (customizable)|
|Power supply||220V or 110V / 50-60HZ|
|Discharge||PTFE (Teflon) bottom discharge valve with no deadspace|
|Pressure Range||Full vacuum to atmosphere|
|Max jacket pressure||0.5 bar|
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Continuous Stirred Tank Glass Reactor
The advantages and disadvantages of a continuous stirred tank glass reactor depend on several factors. Stirred tank glass reactors involve the use of impellers, which lead to the mixing of ingredients during the reaction. The mixing effects lead to more surface area exposed to the chemical reaction to proceed fast.
The Advantages of Continuous Stirred Tank Glass Reactor
- Good temperature control
When the ingredients are mixed in a glass reactor, it leads to even distribution of temperature. It leads to efficient operation in cases where the ingredients require a given temperature for optimum results. The mixing effects lead to even distribution of temperature in the medium, which is very useful in the regulation of the heat during the chemical reactions.
- High yields
In most cases, there is a high yield brought about by the mixing effects. The rate of chemical reaction improves when the mixing effects are involved. You can count on the mixing effect to realize the best results out of the chemical reaction. Many experts prefer the reactor type due to its high efficiency. It is essential to check on the yields which can be obtained. Many experts prefer the reactor type as a way of improving efficiency.
- Automatic controls
The use of automatic controls in modern stirred tank glass reactors leads to high efficiency. The mixing of ingredients is automatically controlled, which contributes to the effective mixing of ingredients. It is advisable to incorporate automatic controls, which can contribute to high efficiency in the mixing process.
The Disadvantages of Continuous Stirred Tank Glass Reactor
- Wear and tear of moving parts
The stored glass tank reactor has several benefits. There are few downsides one has to check out before buying the stirred glass reactor. For example, the moving parts of the impellers can be exposed to frequent wear and tear. The moving parts during the mixing process require frequent repairs, which can expose you to more costs.
Continuous Stirred Tank glass Reactor vs Batch glass Reactor
A batch reactor is a reactor that you can find in the market. The reactors are put in the reactor, and the reaction goes on overtime. The batch reactor does not reach a stable state, and it is often necessary to control the temperature, volume, and pressure. Several batch reactors have ports for sensors and input and output materials. Batch reactors are commonly used in small-scale production and biological reactions, such as fermentation, pulp, and enzyme production.
On the other hand, in CSTR, one or more liquid reagents are inserted into the tank reactor. The reactors are generally moving with the impeller to ensure the correct mixing of the reagents during the extraction of the reactor fluid. Dividing the volume of the tank by volumetric flow rate through the tank gives space-time, or the time required to process the volume of a single liquid reactor. The reactor is suitable for using chemical kinetics; the expected percentage of the reaction can be calculated.
The typical batch reactor consists of an induction storage tank and cooling system. The sizes of these containers can vary from less than 1 liter to more than 15,000 liters. They are usually made of steel, stainless steel, glass-coated steel, glass, or exotic alloys. Liquids and solids are sent through gaskets on the top cover of the reactor. Vapors and gases are also discharged through the connections at the top. The fluids are removed from the back.
The benefits of a batch reactor lie in versatility. A single container can perform a series of different operations without having to break containment. That is especially useful when treating toxic or highly effective compounds.
Alternatively, CSTRs are frequently used in industrial processing, mainly inhomogeneous liquid phase flow reactions, where induction is required. It can be used alone, in series, or with battery. CSTRs are also used in the pharmaceutical industry as a closed-circuit reactor.
On the other hand, the CSTR reactor has excellent temperature control that can be easily maintained. Also, the entire reactor is economical and has a large thermal capacity that provides an interior room with easy access.
Continuous Stirred Tank Glass Reactor Applications
1. Continuous Stirred Tank Glass Reactor Applications in Biology
A continuous stirred tank bioreactor provides a complete mixture and a homogeneous fermentation broth. For fixed cells, high induction is required to reduce mass transport restrictions of both the substrate and the product. However, this may result in high shear forces that can cause damage to both the support and the cells.
The bioreactors of the continuous agitation tanks were used in the fermentation of ethanol by calcium genes that were frozen and fermented by polycrystalline propionic acid. High fermentation stability was demonstrated using a continuous stirred tank bioreactor in the production of lactic beginnings using lactic and lobster carbonization over four months.
One of the most traditional bioreactors is an inverted bioreactor. The fundamental component of the continuous stirred tank bioreactor is the agitator, which performs a wide range of functions. For instance, it can be used to heat transfer and homogenization. Over time, the efforts and value of extensive research have demonstrated the phenomena of transferring these defenses.
That greatly facilitates the design, installation, and improvement of these defenses in conventional fermentation; therefore, a standard tank bioreactor is used in the fermentation industry. There are several essential engineering specifications for the performance of the continuous stirred tank reactor. Some of these specifications include the removal of the impeller out of the bottom and liquid ratio with the diameter of the tank.
For large vessels, multiple defenses are often installed to provide sufficient mixing and mass transfer. Several researchers studied the hydrodynamics of various impeller systems. The continuously stirred tank bioreactor is another outstanding growth process and is based on a conventional stirred reactor. It requires an air supply, and the engine can be at the top or bottom of the reactor to improve an efficient and reliable bioremediation system for the treatment of industrial wastewater rich in hydrocarbons.
2. Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor in Industry
The CSTR reactor is used as a means to convert reagents into valuable products in the chemical industry. It is used for a liquid or suspension reaction, but it is rarely operated as a gas phase reaction medium. The fermentation of organic waste in renewable bio-hydrogen occurs in three stages, that is, the liquid, reliable, and gas phase. Also, changing the natural loading rate can cause a significant disruption of CSTR stability performance. When the organic loading rate is high, there is a tendency to accumulate acids and inhibitor compounds that lead to reduced gas production and production.
On the other hand, the low organic loading rate can reduce CSTR instability due to an adequate relationship between the microbial food source and some populations of microorganisms. The low natural loading rate also prevents the accumulation of volatile fatty acids that maintain environmental conditions at the optimum pH level. Therefore, it is crucial to study the performance of CSTR in the production of bio-hydrogen from organic waste.
In chemical engineering, CSTR reactors with well-mixed conditions and liquid level control are very common. Within these ideal CSTR reactors, the perfect composition of the mixture and the outlet is assumed to be the same as that of the material inside the reactor. In such systems, the reagents are inserted continuously into the reactor, and the products are removed continuously. The following diagram shows the different components of the continuous stirring reactor.
Industrial fermentation is another application of CSTR that involves the use of a biological catalyst to generate products. In fermenters, microbes stimulate a reaction that divides larger molecules into smaller molecules. The vapor may be tapped from the top of the unit without separation. On the other side, the liquid may be eliminated from the bottom. Industrial fermentation is used in many industries, such as fermentation, wastewater treatment, and hydrocarbon treatment.