What is a Freeze Dryer Lyophilizer?
Freeze dryer lyophilizer is a machine that dehydrates your products. It tends to produce high-quality products since it operates using extremely low temperatures. Under these conditions, the product’s original shape will be maintained while the rehydrated products develop excellent quality.
In most cases, freeze dryer lyophilizer applications include; food processing such as coffee, biological processes such as yeasts and bacteria, biochemical processes such as surgical transplant and preservation processes.
You can use freeze dryer lyophilizer to extend the shelf-life of perishable products or make the material more convenient for transportation by removing water in the product. Usually, this process works by freezing a product and then reducing pressure and adding more heat to allow the frozen water in the product to sublimate without turning into a liquid state.
The freeze dryer lyophilizer occurs in three stages, with the freezing stage being the first and most critical. When a product is properly freeze-dried, you will be able to reduce the drying process by approximately 30%. So, the freeze dryer lyophilizer is important equipment in our research and productions. Continue reading this article and know more information about WKIE LAB freeze dryer lyophilizer.
The Principle of Freeze Dryer Lyophilizer
As previously mentioned, freeze dryer lyophilizer occurs in three different stages, with the freezing phase being the first and most critical. The principle of freeze dryer lyophilizer is relatively easy; however, it needs to be done with utmost care in order to achieve the perfect result. The three phases of freeze dryer lyophilizer are as follows;
There are numerous methods you can use when freezing a product. You might consider freezing a product in a freezer, shell freezer (chilled bath), as well as in your freezer dryer’s shelf. The sublimation process will only occur when the product is chilled triple times its freezing point; this will help skip the melting stage. In addition to that, you will be able to preserve the physical form of your product.
Freeze drying is relatively easy to accomplish when using large ice crystals that are often produced by annealing or slow freezing. Nevertheless, when working with biological materials, using large ice crystals will affect the cell wall forcing them to break, resulting in a less than ideal freezing result.
In order for one to prevent this from occurring, you should consider doing the freezing process rapidly. On the other hand, when working with materials that precipitate, it will be for you to use annealing. This is because this process involves a much faster freezing process, and it raises the temperature of the product allowing the crystals to grow.
The primary drying phase or the sublimation stage
The second phase in freeze-drying lyophilizer is sublimation or the primary drying phase; in this phase, the pressure is lowered as heat is added to the product forcing the frozen water to be sublime rather than melting. Furthermore, the vacuum environment tends to speed up the sublimation process. A cold condenser offers a surface where the water vapor will adhere and then solidify.
In addition to that, the condenser provides protection to the vacuum pump from coming into contact with water vapor. Approximately 95% of the water in your product will be removed during the sublimation process. You should note that the primary drying phase is a relatively slow process; however, it is very effective. When using excess heat, the structure of your product can be damaged easily.
The secondary drying phase or the absorption phase
The final phase in the freeze-drying lyophilizer process is the secondary drying phase or the absorption phase. During this phase, you will be getting rid of an ionically-bound water molecule. This is achieved through raising the temperature higher than the previous phase; the sublimation stage, the bonds will then be broken between the product and the water molecule.
Once that is done, the freeze-dried product will retain a structure that is porous. When the freeze-drying process is over, you will break the vacuum using an inert gas; you should consider doing this before your product becomes sealed. Usually, you can dry most products to approximately 1 to 5% residual moisture.
The Steps of Using a Freeze Dryer to Lyophilize a Product
Understanding freeze drying requirements is highly essential before going through the steps of using a freeze dryer. Some of the freeze-drying requirements include;
- Determining and controlling final moisture content in a product.
- Influencing the appearance of your product’s final result.
- Using constituents that are ideal for targeting the market as well as all the essential regulatory requirements.
- Providing for extended shelf life as well as storage, preferably at room temperature.
- Retaining activity via a particular shelf life.
When using a freeze dryer to lyophilize a product, there are three methods that often used; manifold method, batch drying, and bulk drying. Usually, these methods have a specific purpose, and their method of usage is often determined by the configuration desired of the final product.
- Manifold method.
In this method, ampules, flasks or vials are often attached individually to a drying chamber or manifold’s ports. Here, the product will either be frozen using a freezer by submersing it directly in a bath with low temperatures or through shell freezing. This is often determined by the nature of the product and the volume of products that need to be freeze-dried.
When pre-frozen, the product should be attached to the drying chamber fast to prevent it from warming. A vacuum has to be created quickly in a product container, and the operator will rely on evaporative cooling in order to maintain the product at a low temperature. The manifold method is ideal for use with small volumes as well as products collapse temperatures and high eutectic.
- Batch method.
When using the batch method, a large number of similar products are kept in a tray dryer together. Usually, the products are pre-frozen on the tray dryer. You will need to maintain precise control of the product’s temperature along with the amount of heat being applied to the product in the drying process.
All vials have to be treated alike in the batch while performing the drying process; however, variations can result in some instances. A slight difference in heat input on a shelf will be experienced in different areas. Any slight variation tends to lead to small differences in the residual moisture. The batch method is ideal for preparing a large number of vials or ampules of a particular product.
- Bulk method.
Usually, the bulk method is performed in a tray dryer, just like the batch method. However, in this method, products are poured on a bulk pan and then dried out as a single unit.
Despite the products being spread throughout the surface area of the shelf and might have the same thickness, there will be a change in the rate of heat input when there are empty spaces within product mass. You should note that heat input is primarily limited to that offered by contact with the shelf. This method is reserved for use in stable products, which are often not highly sensitive to moisture or oxygen.
Main Component of Freeze Drying Equipment
Freeze drying is equipped with various essential components that help it to operate accordingly. These components include; refrigeration system, vacuum system, control system, manifold or the product chamber, and condenser. Understanding these components better will help you when it comes to choosing the best freezer dryer that will suit your needs.
- Refrigeration system.
This component aids in cooling the ice. The condenser is located in a freeze dryer to help in achieving the perfect freezing temperature for your product. In addition to that, the refrigeration system has been designed to help in cooling shelves in a product chamber for freezing your product.
- Vacuum system.
On the other hand, the vacuum system is equipped with a separate vacuum pump that is connected to an airtight condenser, and then it is attached to the product chamber. Along with the refrigeration system, the vacuum system forms the heart of a freezing dryer. Usually, its primary goal is to help in evacuating the system down to a processing working pressure.
- Control system.
When it comes to the control system, this component tends to differ in complexity, and it often consists of the ability to sense pressure and temperature. Usually, it is equipped with advanced controllers that aid in the programming of the complete recipe when it comes to freeze-drying. It includes an option to the progress of the freeze-drying process with the utmost ease. You will be able to choose the control system for the freeze-drying process in accordance with the usage and application.
- Product chamber or manifold
Usually, the product chamber is typically a large chamber equipped with a shelves system or a manifold equipped with flasks for placing your product.
The primary function of a condenser is to help attract vapor that is being sublimed off from your product. Since condensers are maintained at extremely low temperatures the same to the product ice, the sublimed vapor will condense and turn into ice in the condenser within a short period.
The Types of Freeze Dryer Lyophilizer
Are you in search of an ordinary model vacuum lyophilizer for pharmaceutical, biology, and chemical use? Note that nothing can beat WKIE-10N freeze-drying devices, it is excellent for laboratory freeze drying tests and a minimal amount of production. Moreover, there are various types you can get in the market, including branch capping manifold type, branch common manifold type, capping type, and common type.
WKIE-10N ordinary vacuum freeze dryer lyophilizer
This product comes loaded with several features, such as:
- Defrost electric function
- A stainless shelf sample
- A glass cover that is organic to help you see the entire process of freeze-drying.
- A compressor that is imported with large refrigerating capacity plus noise level
- Panel operation area and cold trap both are stainless steel, corrosion-resistant and bright.
- It has a big mouth of the cold trap without an internal coil but accompanied by a pre-cooling function samples
- English and Chinese LCD.
- A green product that is environment-friendly for conforming international standard
When it comes to material tray, especially the stainless steel shelf design of a tray sample, which can be adjusted, you can change the number of layers freely. The material tray diameter is 200mmamunting approximately for four layers with 1000mL amounting material.
Note that when your material depth is beneath 10mm, the duration of drying is 24 hours.
Top Press Model
This top press model is remarkable for laboratory freeze-drying experiments or even pilot scale.
Furthermore, this product is patent; it contains an electric heating shelf. It alters operations that are traditional and prevent your product against pollution. This product comes with a variety of features, especially for food laboratory pharmaceuticals, it comes accompanied by a PID control standard and an electric heating shelf. It has 16 programs that you can put in 32 segments.
It also comes with a drying record curves and LCD. The rectangular chamber internal surface plus the product tray are both stainless steel. However, the nitrogen valve is unnecessary; if you need it, get a standard type. On the other hand, the valve air-in-let with nitrogen is optional; if you opt for one, choose a stopper type.
The Multi-pipeline model of a freeze dryer is responsible for heat addition to N-series. It helps generate heating curve settings, saves energy, and speeds up the drying process with several drying solutions, especially for use in the laboratory. Lyophilizer contains advanced pharmaceutical tools, such as the electrical control systems, silicone oil circulation, refrigeration, cold traps, and freeze-drying tanks.
Before you place your product in the cabinet, make sure you wash the slab layer and tank body in preparation for an injection. When you ate through with evacuation, and it is dried, use pure water to sterilize.
After that, open the water ring vacuum pump to perform and detect the leak rate of bellows. When you are through detecting the leak rate, the cooling of the freeze-drying box takes place, then put your product in the cabinet. The product is then pre-frozen; the process of sublimation drying takes place. Afterward, it undergoes analytical dying.
Ensure that you perform a pressure rise examination to get the end time of lyophilization. End it with defrosting, discharge, and deflation.
Top Press Multi-Manifold Model
Freeze drying has another name called lyophilization; this is a procedure that aqueous substance undergoes freezing to a solid-state. This means the water will be sublimated from its solid condition into a gaseous state to get rid of water and preserve the substance. Note that in the biotechnology products field, the technology f freeze-drying is primarily used for the generation of drugs like hormones, antibiotics, enzymes, vaccines, plasma, and serum.
Furthermore, you can also use it to produce bacteriology and immunology and inspection of biochemical drugs, among many more drugs. It is appropriate for you to note that the Top Press Multi-Manifold Model can be applied in herbs, food, blood serum, and pharmaceutical drying.
This model of a freeze dryer lyophilizer can get rid of 95 to 99% of water, to allow your product to be preserved for a longer duration without getting damaged. On the other hand, the dried product will be spongy and porous. It can dissolve faster once you add solvent or water into its original state. The entire process does not interfere with the structure of the product. When you are freeze-drying at a minimal temperature, you will likely lose volatile elements in your product.
T model freeze dryer is a unit that stands on the floor with a condenser capacity of 3kg and -50 degrees Celsius temperature perfect for drying aqueous specimens. It is appropriate for you to note that T-type can accommodate 24 ampules through a rubber adaptor.
On the other hand, the in-built oil mist system of filtration and the vacuum oil pump helps ensure it maintains the vacuum pressure and prevents the leakage of oil. Therefore, if you search for freeze dryer lyophilizer, opt for the T model and experience superb performance and experiences. Make it your number one choice always.
The Specifications of WKIE LAB Freeze Dryer Lyophilizer
The Maintenance of Freeze Dryer Lyophilizer
Nothing is essential, like running maintenance on your freeze dryer. Furthermore, this applies to the entire laboratory equipment. Your freezer dryer can serve you for a long time, depending on the application, how frequently you are likely to use it, and how well you maintain it.
The freeze dryer lyophilizer has an average life span of 10-15 years. If you want this product to serve you for a long time, it is appropriate that you run proper maintenance on them by implementing several tips, such as:
Clean your freeze dryer after every use
It is necessary to ensure that you clean your condenser after each use. In case you are using acids, you must neutralize the entire chamber.
Moreover, the sample you have used does not matter; this means rinsing and wiping down the entire components that have come in touch with the chemicals is compulsory to minimize the risk of damaging your freeze dryer. Make sure that you do not allow water with chemicals to settle on the stainless rubber or acrylic components of the freeze dryer.
Perform vacuum pump maintenance regularly
Most people experience issues with their freeze dryer not being able to pull enough vacuum. This is a common problem you are likely to experience almost all the time. Note that running regular pump maintenance is a crucial solution to the problem since it helps you the immediate downfall and maximizes your device’s life span.
Ensure that the freeze dryer is compatible at all time with the temperature of your sample
Before attempt using the unit, it is appropriate you make sure that the sample you are likely to use is a compatible system of your freeze dryer. To achieve this perfectly well, ensure you plan for confusing samples and select a system depending on the demands. If you find this difficult, it is ideal that you boost the temperature of your freeze dryer.
The condenser’s temperature should range from 10 to 15 degrees; this should be below the eutectic sample point. Avoid using acid on stainless steel; instead, use them with PTFE models. Systems with -84 degrees Celsius are perfect for samples with minimal eutectic temperature, while systems with -105 can manage samples containing a minimum quantity of ethanol.
Therefore, proper maintenance of your freeze dryer determines its durability. Ensure that your freeze dryer undergoes maintenance regularly to enhance its life span.
The Applications of Freeze Dryer Lyophilizer
Freeze Dryer Lyophilizer s also applied in the food industry to extend the life span or shelf life of food products as it maintains the food quality. Note that freeze-drying results in maximum food quality above all drying techniques since there is the maintenance of structural integrity and flavors preservation.
The fact that freeze-drying is costly, you should consider using it with maximum value products, such as seasonal vegetables and fruits, since they have limited availability. Foods and coffee are appropriate for military rations, hikers, and astronauts since they have lightweight. A good amount of dried food is easy to maneuver around, unlike a similar weight if it is wet.
Freeze-dried food can be rehydrated with water if you want. However, it is essential to note that the shelf-life of a product that is dried is usually longer compared to a fresh wet product. This makes it appropriate for astronauts, military personnel, and hikers too.
When you freeze dry your coffee, you are likely to have a product with the amount of lysine, phenylalanine, and leucine. Strawberries can also have the maximum quality, especially when freeze-fried since they retain their color, potential to be rehydrated, and flavor. Therefore, this device can be applied in the industry pretty well.
Freeze drying in the laboratory is responsible for maximizing the life span of sensitive biological products. Moreover, it stabilizes and guarantees the storage of these products. Laboratory free drying is accountable for getting rid of water from biological products that seem to be delicate. This is an appropriate method of preserving them; this means you can always reconstitute them by adding solvent or water. It uses lyophilization to minimize the product’s temperature beneath freezing.
After that, there is an application of a maximum-pressure vacuum to get rid of water in terms of vapor. The vapor settling on the condenser transforms into ice, then you do away with. Do not worry about the physical structure of the product since it will remain the same. When you are through, you can preserve the material for transport as well as storage. This is the main advantage of freeze dryer Lyophilizer in the laboratory process.
Furthermore, it is biological remarkable for freeze frying pathological cultures and samples, viruses, bacteria, hormones, enzymes, proteins, blood plasma, antibiotics, vaccines, and antibodies.
In the Pharmaceutical Industry
Pharmaceutical Industry uses freeze dryer lyophilizer to maximize the shelf life of several products, such as biologics, live virus vaccines, and numerous injectables. When you remove water from your material and seal it appropriately in the glass vial, you will store it easily. Moreover, you can ship it and later alter it to its original formula for injection.
On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industry also uses freezer dryer lyophilizer to generate wafers or tablets. This is advantageous because since it is a bit excipient and can be quickly absorbed and administered in the form of dosage. It is crucial to note that freeze-dried products can be manufactured as lyophilized powders to undergo reconstitution in vials.
Additionally, currently, it is in prefilled syringes for patients to administer themselves. These products include Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine group C and A combined, the Typhoid vaccine, and the measles live virus vaccine. This device can also be used in producing raw material necessary for pharmaceutical products, such as Active Pharmaceutical Product Ingredient undergo this process to acquire chemical sturdy at the storage of room temperature.
When done in a large amount, it is achieved using trays and not glass vials. Therefore, note that freeze dryer lyophilizer is mostly applicable in the pharmaceutical industry.